Covid-19 Super-spreading Incident,

as well as Epidemic Prevention Strategy and Product Design

According to a report in Nature magazine, on December 5, 2020, the eve of traditional Belgian Christmas, residents of the Hemelrijck care home near Antwerp accepted a visit from Santa Claus. However, this holiday event aimed at spreading cheers has turned into a tragedy. Forty staff and more than 100 residents (of which at least 26 have died), the dressed up volunteers had tested and were infected by the coronavirus.

These few super-spreaders or occasions, and most of the other relatively less extensive spreading events, have attracted the attention of researchers. Whether some people’s physiques will become super-spreaders in particular, or caused by special circumstances, or the result of both appearing at the same time.

Although this phenomenon is similar to that of the 2003 SARS epidemic, smallpox and tuberculosis, and many other pathogen infections, super infections have already occurred before they were put into one of the core concerns of COVID-19. It is worth noting that during the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, there was no so-called “super transmission incident”. This was due to the lack of attention to the means of transmission of the virus at that time or there were different reasons, and it was worthy of our attention.

As the epidemic enters its second year, “an era marked by the rapid spread and mutation of the virus,” researchers are now more than ever believing in the importance of how super transmission will develop the COVID-19 pandemic and how it will be transmitted in the future. They found that the super-spreading incident is one of the main ways SARS-CoV-2 gains a foothold in communities around the world, so far, it has infected more than 100 million people and caused more than 2.4 million deaths. If effective control measures are not taken, super-spreading incidents may even become larger and more frequent. These super-infectious events will allow these new “higher infectious variant strains” first discovered in the United Kingdom, South Africa, and Brazil to be directly introduced into the human world and become lingering new pathogens, and continue to produce new mutations.

With the data collected during the year, researchers have accumulated a large amount of evidence to prove that some of the main components of hyper-transmission activities, which includes long indoor gatherings, poor ventilation, singing and aerobic exercise, etc., they produce many tiny infectious droplets that can be inhaled by other people.

However, the above conclusion does not constitute a conclusion, whether the differences in human biology are also factors that cause super transmission. To be more precise, how to compare the importance of human behavior differences and biological differences on the occurrence of super-spreading events will help in the formulation of epidemic prevention strategies and how to generally improve the ability of resisting the viruses in human biology, at the same time, being able to design the most appropriate social activity norms on the basis of the most consistent considerations of social harmony and human nature is the primary consideration for government health agencies in formulating epidemic prevention policies.

In fact, no matter which factor has a greater impact, we can be sure that it is absolutely necessary to improve people’s ability to fight against COVID-19 and to implement epidemic prevention measures during high-risk activities. Our approach to avoiding super-spreading incidents can be divided into the following two directions for planning.

  • Direction 1: How to improve the body’s immunity.
  • Direction 2: How to achieve effective epidemic prevention in high-risk activities.

How to improve the body’s immunity

We all know that the human immune system is divided into innate non-specific immune system and acquire (or called adaptive) specific immune system. For the ability of the immune system, if it is for the innate immune system, it includes the sensitivity to pathogen recognition and the ability to control pathogens (to avoid overreaction of the immune system and affect the normal operation of the body). Some activities or methods that can increase the rate of metabolism and indirectly improve the ability of the innate immune system are one of the methods that can be referred to. These methods, including long-term maintenance of moderate exercise, or the correct use of suitable far-infrared textiles when it’s not suitable for excessive exercise that can easily cause injuries, can both improve the body’s immunity.

The most common way to improve the ability of the acquired immune system is to use vaccines. Vaccination is the most effective way to target specific pathogens and stimulate the acquired immune system to produce antibodies by administering antigens. In addition, the antibodies produced in the lymph are carried through the blood to other parts of the body, the quality of blood circulation also indirectly provides the effectiveness of antibodies against pathogens, that is to say, both accelerating blood circulation and accelerating the metabolic rate. Can effectively improve immunity.

How to achieve effective epidemic prevention in high-risk activities

The issue of effective epidemic prevention in super-spreading occasions that we mentioned earlier has really reached the point where it should be addressed squarely. This kind of super-spreading event often causes the following two irreversible results.

  • Initiate regional (national) or even global epidemics of new variant viruses.
  • A new wave of the epidemic spreads regionally or globally, causing irreversible losses and changes including economic and human health.

If the effective methods of epidemic prevention in these high-risk activities are analyzed logically, the following conclusions can be easily obtained:

  1. First of all, we must prevent people infected with the virus from participating in activities. Therefore, screening and necessary inspection measures are absolutely necessary. Governments of various countries have many requirements, but whether they are implemented thoroughly and whether the organizers and participants of many activities have the awareness of epidemic prevention are our biggest concerns. The second is the correctness of testing, as the virus mutates, it becomes more and more impossible to guarantee.
  2. For the personnel involved in the activity, the first layer of protection must be carried out so that the virus cannot spread from any carriers. In fact, traditional barriers have limited effects. The reason is very simple, we observe these super-spreading occasions, including chorus, speech, chat and other relatively frequent physical contact are the main phenomena, to effectively ensure that the participants of the virus-carrying activities do not spread the virus, the most effective method is to let the virus in the carrier be wiped out before it spreads. This method is to use PPE (personal protective equipment) with antibacterial and antiviral effects, including masks, clothing, footwear, and accessories. This kind of epidemic prevention is called “personal protection.” Through event admission or major events requiring the distribution of personal anti-epidemic supplies, and strictly stipulating event participation, the maximum risk of “preventing individuals from spreading the virus into the space and causing indirect infection” can be achieved.

  3. If unfortunately, the epidemic prevention at the above level did not prevent the spread of the virus 100%, then the places most likely to be contaminated by the virus include:

  • Places that may be touched by other people (interface).
  • The space where the aerosol carrying the virus may diffuse into and infect other people involved in the activity (space).

Therefore, we must also do a good job of interface epidemic prevention and space epidemic prevention. If the vulnerability of personal epidemic prevention creates the risk of interface epidemic prevention, then we must simulate personal epidemic prevention loopholes in advance, and the location and facilities of the interface epidemic prevention that may be caused. For example, the fitness equipment in the gym, or the tables and chairs, handles, buttons, equipment, tableware, etc. that everyone will touch in the activity. If these devices can be equipped with antibacterial and antiviral functions, then naturally, the risk of interface infection can be greatly reduced.

In the nosocomial infection incident of TYGH, the interface infections detected by the medical staff included not only the refrigerators and doorknobs frequently touched by medical staff, but also the curtains, bed, tables and chairs, bed sheets and pillows, trash cans, and various types used in the ward, such as bathroom facilities, are all interface items for epidemic prevention.

As for space epidemic prevention, it must be improved through air purifiers placed in various locations and corners, and air-conditioning systems in confined spaces. The most simple and effective way to prevent epidemics in space is to install the air filter that can be sterilized right after passing through. Of course, one of the effective methods is to install modular air filtration equipment that can create spatial separation. But in any case, the installation of the antibacterial and antiviral air filter is the most important step in space epidemic prevention.

There is a fiber technology that uses ACT sputtering technology in PPE on the market, which allows various fiber (textile) products to have antibacterial, antiviral, and far-infrared rays. These PPE includes personal anti-epidemic products, interface anti-epidemic products, and space anti-epidemic products, provide products with high efficiency, high biocompatibility, and high antibacterial, antiviral, and far-infrared functions. The ACT sputtering products include disposable flat masks, one-piece woven masks, hospital curtains, cleaning pads, protective and isolation clothing, as well as shoes, clothes and socks with antibacterial, antiviral and far-infrared functions, towels, carpets, chair covers, bed sets, tableware sets, 3C accessories, and various daily necessities, etc.