Principle and Design of ACTife Virus Inactivation Function

Traditional Metal Ion Antibacterial Technology

The report that the copper surface can be used for virus inactivation is no longer news. A research reported from Myant Inc. in Ontario, Canada pointed out that a series of redox reactions triggered by monovalent copper Cu+ and divalent copper Cu++ on the copper surface, including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the metal surface, and the generation of OH- (hydroxyl free radicals), which is highly toxic to the virus, will cause the destruction of the virus genome and at the same time disintegration of the envelope and the drop of surface spurs. The study also pointed out that the effect produced by alloyed copper, even under the surface of alloys with lower copper content, is more effective for virus inactivation than higher content of copper metal. Most of the time, the inactivation rate of enveloped viruses (such as new coronavirus, SARS, etc.) on copper-containing metal surfaces is higher than that of viruses without envelopes (such as enterovirus).

What we are going to mention here is not about the mechanism of how copper ions carry out virus inactivation. This article mainly discusses why the copper alloy surface with less copper content has significantly higher virus inactivation efficiency. It can be used to prove that the metal structure of the surface coating of the material and the redox potential difference between different metals have a key effect on the virus inactivation. The ACTife ACT sputtering technology proposed by the main body of the article is based on the idea derived from the extraordinary effect of copper alloy in the above research report. Although the alloy copper in this paper is still designed with the strong oxidation effect catalyzed by traditional metal ions to produce virus inactivation effect, it also confirms ACTife’s ACT sputtered material to some extent. The reason why it can produce high-efficiency sterilization and the theoretical basis of virus inactivation.

In terms of single metal used for virus inactivation, copper is more convenient and effective than silver. The main reason is that copper can produce effects in dry environments, but silver needs to be effective in a humid environment. This is why almost all the literature uses copper as the basic material for surface antibacterial.

First, let’s discuss the antibacterial effects of metal salts (metal ions) as follow:

Ag+>Co++>Ni++>Al+++>Zn++>Cu+++=Fe+++>Mn++>Zn++>Ba++>Mg++>Ca++

The development of traditional metal antibacterial materials can be divided into the following three types:

  • Surface coating antibacterial
  • Composite antibacterial metal
  • Antibacterial alloy

The Basic Definition of Traditional Inorganic Antibacterial Agents

Inorganic antibacterial agents mainly use the antibacterial ability of the metal themselves to fix silver, copper, zinc or other ions on the surface of porous materials through physical adsorption or ion exchange methods, and then add it to the product to obtain an antibacterial material.

Inorganic antibacterial agents can be divided into two categories according to the antibacterial mechanism:

  • The first category:Antibacterial agents with metal ions or their compounds as the main antibacterial components. This antibacterial agent has different products depending on the type of carrier material. Commonly used in water purifiers.
  • The second category: An antibacterial agent with photocatalytic activity represented by titanium dioxide. The advantage of this type of antibacterial agent is that it has higher heat resistance than general inorganic antibacterial agents, but it requires ultraviolet radiation and the presence of oxygen (or water) to have a sterilization effect. Experiments have shown that coating a layer of TiO2 on the glass and giving it three hours of light can kill E. coli, and if four hours of light is given, the toxin content can be controlled below 5%.

Base Material Selected for Inorganic Antibacterial

There are many substrates that can be used for inorganic antibacterial. Here, we mainly focus on the application of substrates on fiber and fabrics.

Antibacterial fibers are widely used in the manufacture of daily sanitary textiles such as medical staff uniforms, inpatient uniforms, underwear, bed sheets, etc. in recent years, it has also been used in the industrial sector as filter materials, packaging materials and medical and health materials.

The method of fiber antibacterial processing is divided into filling type and post-processing type. The filling type is to blend the antibacterial agent and various synthetic fibers together. Since the antibacterial agent is mixed into the fiber, the obtained antibacterial fiber has good washing resistance and the antibacterial effect lasts for a long time. Post-processing type is in the fiber post-processing process, the antibacterial agent is bonded to the surface of the fiber through chemical bonds or hydrogen bonds, and there is no antibacterial agent inside the fiber, so it only exhibits antibacterial properties in a short time and has poor washing resistance. This is the various antibacterial fibers that we can traditionally see on the market, including silver (ion) fibers.

[ACTife is an innovative technology beyond the traditional – the principle and design of sterilization of ACT sputtered fabrics]

ACTife’s antibacterial fiber production model uses the metal sputtering technology in semiconductor technology to nanoize the three metals of silver, copper and titanium, and then sputter the metal atoms on the PET fiber at high speed. Then it is blended with other natural fibers, and finally woven into textiles in various ways to make products.

Compared with the traditional antibacterial fiber process, the advantages of the ACTife ACT sputtering process include:

  • The location of the sputtering is on the surface of the fiber, and at the same time, after the subsequent process, it is blended into yarn and woven into cloth. From a macro point of view, the sputtering position is evenly distributed on the inside and outside of the entire fabric; from a micro point of view, it is evenly distributed on the inside and outside of the fiber surface. The atomic fastness of the Nano metal is extremely high, but it does not lose its full distribution of antibacterial ability from the inside to the outside.

The Nano-atoms of multiple metals physically recombine into multiple sputtering layers, and the silver atoms on the surface, due to the higher oxidation activity of copper Nano-atoms, provide additional free electrons to supplement the release of Nano-silver atoms, in order to lower the possibility of Nano-silver atoms to be converted into ions and leave the fiber in the process of generating active oxygen by electrons, which will cause attenuation of the antibacterial effect, thus it has greatly improved the long-lasting effect of antibacterial and antiviral. The released reactive oxygen species (ROS) will combine with H+ (hydrogen ions) in the air to form hydrogen peroxide, which produced the first step of the virus inactivation reaction (see Figure1 for the schematic diagram of electron release). At this time, the Nano sputtering structure of ACTife, because Nano silver still maintains its state of silver atoms, has not changed at all. In other words, the traditional process of ion antibacterial, using metal ions to generate active oxygen, is skillfully transformed into a physical electron release process. The lack of chemical precipitation of metal ions is of great help to the human body or the environment, and it also takes into account the long-term use of the product.

(Figure 1) The electron transfer process of ACT sputtering to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) – physical.

After the active oxygen reacts with hydrogen ions in the air, H2O2 hydrogen peroxide molecules are formed on the surface of the sputtering layer. This molecule will be further decomposed into OH- and OH molecules by the electrons released by the Nano-silver on the ACT sputtering layer. As shown in figure 2 (this is still electrons released from Nano-silver, and Nano-copper grabs an electron from the air to replace the lost electron).

(Figure 2) The Nano-silver sputtered layer of ACTife releases electrons, allowing the hydrogen peroxide molecules formed by ROS on the sputtering surface to decompose into two kinds of hydroxyl radicals, OH- and OH, which have a high degree of deactivation effect on viruses.

The above physical effect of releasing electrons is an extremely efficient inactivation effect. The main reason is that it does not require the use of catalysts, the environment or conditions of chemical reactions, it can achieve very low energy to generate active oxygen, and then generate hydroxyl radicals with high virus deactivation effects on the surface. From the various literatures we have read, we have found that the antibacterial effect of metal ions often takes an hour to several hours or more. However, laboratory tests tell us that the sterilization effects of ACTife are more than three Log levels (i.e. 99.9% or more) is often within tens of second to one minute.

(Figure 3) Antibacterial and antiviral efficiency of ACTife Nano sputtering (400 million of viruses die out in a minute).

ACTife is a high-speed and efficient physical antibacterial technology that is higher than metal ions and various traditional antibacterial technologies.

Physical inactivation and antibacterial, in addition to long-lasting, no precipitation (so no harm to the human body, no pollution to the environment), but also more efficient (physical electronic transfer) than general antibacterial technology, clean, non-toxic, and more comprehensive, maintains high coverage of virus inactivation and antibacterial effects on the surface and inside at the same time. According to our past discussions on virus particle size (see blog post [2], [3]), we can know that the way to effectively block and eliminate virus particles must be:

  • Filtering droplets larger than 5 microns (5x10-6m) in size (these droplets are assumed to be the movement of inertial particles).
  • Use fabric fibers to intercept droplets with a size of 3-5 microns and particles with partial Brownian motion.
  • The use of fabric fibers and the electrostatic effect of ACTife Nano sputtered surface are attached to fine droplets aerosol particles with a size of 1-3 microns, which exhibit semi-inertial motion and semi-Brownian motion.
  • Using the fibers of the fabric and the electrostatic effect of the ACTife Nano sputtered surface, it adsorbs 0.3-1 micron aerosol particles suspended in the air for a long time. These particles will be suspended in the air in Brownian motion for a long time, and move directionally by the motion of the air.

If the virus droplets or aerosols adsorbed to the outer layer of the mask are not inactivated immediately, they will still be inhaled into the human body and cause infection after repeated breathing process. In the research of The Lancet Microbe on maintaining the infectious activity of viruses on the surface of various materials [4], we found the following phenomena.

[The following is a literal translation of a citation from a paper]

Experts tested the lifespan of the new coronavirus in a space where the temperature was fixed at 21 degrees and the relative humidity was kept at 65%. After 3 hours, it disappeared from the printed paper; after 2 days, it left the cloth and wood; after 4 days, it was undetectable on glass and paper money; but on the outside of the mask, the virus lasted for the longest 7 days.

The most surprising thing is that on the 7th day of the investigation, the new coronavirus still stayed on the outward side of the surgical mask. This is the item that the virus stayed for the longest in all experiments.

 

[End paper citation]

I think few people know that the new coronavirus has the longest survival time on surgical masks. This choice of mask material has actually become the main mask material currently used in the world. Plus our attitude towards the disposal of disposable masks today, how can it not aggravate the suspicion of the occurrence of large-scale infections worldwide. Antibacterial, reusable, and long-lasting effects of masks have become inevitable conditions and development trends. Virus particles adsorbed on masks, whether in aerosol state or droplets state, must be effectively and quickly eliminated. The length of time to deactivate is crucial, if it takes too long, it is easy to cause cross contamination. Whether it is the second transfer of the hand touch, or the inhalation of the not-killed virus into the body under the state of continuous breathing, it is an undesirable result when designing effective anti-epidemic masks.

A Brief Explanation of The Effect of ACTife Nano Titanium Coating

The Nano-titanium in ACTife products can produce TiO2 under ultraviolet light to trigger the light and get the effect of catalytically active antibacterial agents. After the ACTife towel is washed, there is sufficient water in the environment (residual water after washing) and sufficient oxygen molecules in the air. Expose it to the sun for three to four hours, which will improve the overall antibacterial and antiviral effect of the towel. All ACTife products can be dried in the sun to achieve the additional effect of antibacterial and virus inactivation.

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