Mechanism of Antibacterial And Virus Deactivation Technology

Traditional Antibacterial and Virus Deactivation Technology Uses Chemical Reactions And Metal Irons

For typical applications, we can refer to the following report.

2020.05.07 Global Bio & Investment Magazine / Israel Develops Nano-copper Long-lasting Antiviral Coating.

The above report is that Israel has developed a long-lasting antibacterial technology for Nano-copper coating, which is one of the most advanced and representative technologies for chemical binding metal ions to achieve antibacterial effect. Its basic principle is as follows.

  • First of all, Nano-copper coating technology on various materials is required.
  • Use the monovalent copper ions precipitated in the coating to generate -OH (hydroxyl radical) that destroys the virus to inactivate the virus.
  • Among the more specialized technologies, it also includes slowing down the release of copper ions (the antibacterial effect can be just reached, but there will not be too much precipitation to make the coating invalid), so the antiviral effect can continue, and achieve the long-term antibacterial requirements. The above long-term antibacterial principle is, the precipitation of Cu+ must rely on oxygen molecules dissolved in water (or water vapor) to initiate the reduction reaction, reducing monovalent copper to divalent copper, and at the same time O2- and H+ have formed Hydrogen oxide is used as a fuel to generate Fenton oxidation effectively sterilize (hydroxyl radicals). This Fenton oxidation reaction, which can achieve the sterilization effect, relied on monovalent copper ions to chelate the virus (chelation will protect the virus), and then through the strong oxidation of monovalent copper ions (Cu+) and hydrogen peroxide, -OH (hydroxyl radical) is generated, at the same time, the monovalent copper ions are converted into divalent copper ions, so that the virus loses its protection. Also, it will be destroyed by the -OH groups (hydroxyl radicals) that cause RNA scission, protein denaturation, and cell death.

The followings are the three reaction formulas of this chemical reaction:

ACTife’s antibacterial and virus deactivation technology uses physical properties and the way that metal atoms release electrons.

ACTife’s ACT sputtering technology has more advanced atomic antibacterial technology, allowing the generation of hydroxyl radicals, not through the mode of chemical ion precipitation (needing water-soluble oxygen molecules), but through anhydrous physical function to sterilize and inactivate the virus.

Since this physical antibacterial mechanism and structure are an exclusive research and development result, the relevant academic papers on the market have not yet been published. From a theoretical point of view, it is the release of physical electrons on the surface of the object that needs antibacterial, which initiates the strong oxidation reaction of external substances to generate -OH (hydroxyl free radical), sterilize and inactivate the virus. The method of sterilization and deactivation by hydroxyl radicals is already a very mature and widely proven second effective technology on the market (the most effective is through the strong oxidation effect of fluorine-containing substances, but this process is toxic to humans). The above Israeli Nano-copper ion long-term antibacterial technology is one of the proofs.

In addition, the operating mechanism of the inactivate effect of silver-copper materials on the coronavirus (see the research “Efficacy of copper and silver as antiviral and antimicrobial agents in the health care system” in our special column) is also the best proof of the antibacterial effect from this strong oxidation reaction. Therefore, the verification of our ACTife physical antibacterial and antiviral principle falls into the verification of the following two basic mechanisms.

  1. Is it possible to use the surface structure of ACT sputtering to prove that the electron cloud distribution under these Nano-metal structures will be biased to a specific direction, resulting in a “valence-like ion” effect.
  2. Whether the effect of the valence ions produced above can start the “like strong oxidation reaction” between the sputtered surface and the virus organic matter.
  3. If the above two points are true, we can reasonably believe that viruses and bacteria will be inactivated and destroyed by the -OH groups. (This is a fact that can be proved by many original papers, but the methods implemented in other papers are the application of ionic metals)

The first and second points above are currently under qualitative theoretical basis for product development. For qualitative description, we can achieve the integration of theory and application in two ways.

  1. Positive method: Use the actual effect test of the produced product to verify. ACTife currently uses this method, with a qualitative theoretical foundation, makes products and tests them, and verified the feasibility of the theory in application based on the results of the tests.
  2. Scientific theoretical verification: This must first be strictly defined in terms of manufacturing process and environment, after repeated experiments and quantitative formula derivation, a mathematical model of theoretical application is established. Through the verification of physical and chemical principles, a quantitative analysis of specific application effects can be obtained.

The second method requires a lot of academic research to establish a completely correct and predictable scientific model. The ACTife R&D team will continue to conduct follow-up academic R&D and theoretical verification with universities and colleges. At present, the actual test data of the product is used to support the empirical effect of the qualitative theory.

From the above discussion, we can know that the main function of ACTife’s sputtering technology is due to the electron cloud distribution effect on the atomic surface caused by the redox potential difference between silver and copper. Therefore, let’s first look at the comparison of the oxidation-reduction potential difference of these two metals and with other metals.

Arrangement of oxidation-reduction potential (activity size) of various metals:

Li>Rb>K>Cs>Ba>Sr>Ca>Na>Mg>Al>Mn>(C)>Zn>Cr>Fe>Co>Ni>Sn>Pb>(H2)>Cu>Hg>Ag>Pt>Au

The higher the activity, the more it can be used as a reducing agent, which can take the oxygen from others, and lower the activity, and the lower the activity, the more it can be used as an oxidant, which means it can give oxygen to others. We can get the following conclusions from the comparison of the relative relationship between the activity of copper and silver in the above table.

  • Copper is more active than silver, so it is suitable as a reducing agent to take other people’s oxygen, which means that oxygen prefers to combine with it (oxygen is not easy to lose electrons, but it can grab other people’s electrons). Copper is relatively more capable of giving electrons to others.
  • Silver is less active than copper, so it is suitable as an oxidant in the sputtering layer to give oxygen to others, that is, to steal electrons.

However, in the world of chemistry, copper and silver are actually metals with relatively low activity. Therefore, compared to other metals, they are only suitable as oxidants, that is, to steal electrons from others. It’s just that silver grabs electrons more than copper.

The free electrons in the outer layer of copper are relatively easy to be taken by silver, therefore, the electron cloud density on the surface of the silver atom is relatively higher than that on the copper atom, which results in the effect of the negative polarity of the silver atom and the positive polarity of the copper atom.

        Ag – Cu – Cu – Ag

  • +   +   -

Consider the following quasi-chemical reaction formula (called the quasi-chemical formula because in fact, for metallic silver and copper atoms, it’s only the physical movement of electrons, not the precipitation of chemical metal ions).

  2Ag- + 2O2  2Ag + 2O2-

  2O2-+2H+ H2O2 + O2

  Ag- + H2O2  Ag + OH- + OH

We can think of it this way, silver takes the electrons from copper (not really taking them, it just brings the free electrons in the copper closer to the silver atom), and see the oxygen in the water vapor (for example, aerosol), then converts oxygen into O2-, and it will still look like Ag. It is worth noting that at the moment of this change, the silver atom keeps the atomic state unchanged, but gives away the free electrons that are attached to the Nano-copper atom under the Nano-silver, then grab another electron in the air. Unlike traditional silver ion antibacterial, which converts silver into an ionic state and then releases it into aqueous solution or water vapor, there is no such problem as Israel’s newly created antibacterial materials to control the precipitation rate to maintain long-term effects. But the effect from the silver atom gives away the free electrons is to form O2- on the surface. This O2- will react with hydrogen ions in the air to form hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Hydrogen peroxide will continue to take away the electrons of silver atoms (or Ag- like) that hold the free electrons of copper atoms to form OH-, and the key to sterilization and virus deactivation is hydroxyl free radicals. According to the above qualitative description in accordance with the basic principles of physics and chemistry, and the hydroxyl radical itself is the key free radical that has been widely studied for sterilization and virus deactivation. Therefore, we can boldly assume that ACTife’s Nano sputtering can achieve antibacterial and virus deactivation effect.

Esti Toledo and Guillaume Le Saux at Dr. Mark Schvartzman's laboratory (Credit: Dani Machlis)

For the antibacterial effect of ACTife, we have also done a lot of careful verification based on testing. The sterilization and deactivation effects and the continuity of these effects are far higher than the traditional ion and spray sterilization methods. Due to the physical type of antibacterial deactivation, the material itself has no problems with precipitation, skin sensitivity, and service life under proper cleaning methods. We will apply the developed sputtering technology to fiber to produce a variety of long-lasting antibacterial fabrics, anti-epidemic masks, daily necessities, home furnishings, shoes and clothing products, etc., and we hope to provide customers in the post-epidemic era a safe, long-lasting and environmentally friendly antibacterial deactivation technology.

Other articles related to anti-bacteria information,

please visit ACTife Technology Special Column.

[click here for more]